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Organizational Behaviour & Motivation

Why is it necessary to motivate people? What factors influence motivation? & How does motivation occur? How do content theories and process theories describe this psychological phenomenon? At the last, you will be able to understand the various theories behind motivation. You will find answers to the above questions and also I shared some techniques regarding job motivation.


Motivation?


Motivation is the willingness to exert efforts to achieve a desired outcome or goal which will satisfy someone’s needs.

Much more definitions are given about motivation as a desire, complex force propelled into action by an individual or to keep up at work in an organization.

Conclusively motivation is a process that inspires the human efforts of an organization to perform its duties in the best possible manner so that the pre-determined objectives of the corporation may be achieved. Motivation is the emotion or desire of an employee That inspires him to act or not to act in certain ways.


Motivation is a psychological concept. It develops the mental and motivation power of an individual and motivates him to do more and better. It increases efficiency, morale. It’s an unending process as human needs are unlimited. Satisfaction of one need creates more needs and the cycle proceeds.


What Motivates People?

1. Personal Needs

2. Nature of our jobs

3. The goals we want to achieve


1. In personal needs major contribution occurs from Maslow’s Pyramid and McClelland's theory. We are going to discuss both theories here.

Maslow’s Pyramid:-



Most of us know these pyramid, right? According to Maslow’s pyramid, our needs start from the base and the highest need is self-actualization. The urge to fulfill needs is a prime subfactor to motivate people. Maslow's pyramid identified needs in levels of hierarchy. It sets the ground for motivation. While some flaws are here that at a single instant no two needs can be fulfilled, some assumptions are not found in practice.

Salient Features of this model:-

  • A higher-level need does not become an active motivating force until the preceding lower-order needs are satisfied.

  • As soon as one need is satisfied, the individual discovers another need that is still unfulfilled.

  • Unsatisfied needs are motivators, i.e., they influence human behavior.

  • Various need levels are independent and overlapping

McClelland's Theory:-

McClelland proposed some factors which influence people to act. It is a combination of those factors in a certain amount. The combination varies from person to person. Those factors are

Need for Achievement

Need for Power

Need for Affiliation


For an entrepreneur need for achievement should be more while for the political person it should be more need for power or affiliation. Normal socialize would be more attracted by the need for affiliation. Such combinations drive motivation.

While other theories are also there which describe intrinsic, extrinsic factors, the XY theory approach looks with different perspectives.


2. Nature of our job?

A According to this theory, at a workplace, certain factors lead to satisfaction while certain factors are lead to dissatisfaction. Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are independent phenomena. If management wants to satisfy employees it should increase motivator factors and decrease hygienic factors. These factors are described in theory after interviewing 200 engineers and accountants.



Motivators (e.g. challenging work, recognition for one's achievement, responsibility, opportunity to do something meaningful, involvement in decision making, sense of importance to an organization) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth.


Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions, good pay, paid insurance, vacations) do not give positive satisfaction or lead to higher motivation, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. The term "hygiene" is used in the sense that these are maintenance factors. These are extrinsic to the work itself and include aspects such as company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary.


3. The goals we want to Achieve are also major motivating factors for most people. These people are led by their visions and ready to pay a huge sum for that vision. These goals should be specific, challenging, committed to others.


Up to now, we look into what motivates us? Now we will look into How to motivate?


How to Motivate?


1. Expectancies for Success.

2. Comparisons to Others.

3. Learning and Self Efficacy.


1. Expectancies for Success:-

The theory put forward to explain this factor are Vrooms Expectancy Theory and McGregor’s X and Y Theory.


Vroom Expectancy Theory states that The behavior of an individual is influenced by their expectations, perceptions, and calculations regarding the relationship between performance and rewards. It specifies that the efforts to achieve high performance are a function of the perceived likelihood that high performance can be achieved and will be rewarded if achieved and that the reward will be worth efforts made.

But this approach not always works. To motivate people it is just not enough to offer them some rewards. They must also feel convinced that they have the ability to get the reward.


McGregor X and Y Theory:-



2. Comparisons to Other:-

This approach is based on the basic assumption that employees working in the organization should be treated equally in terms of justice, balance, and fairness. When they join the organization they carry some qualifications, skills, and knowledge with them for performing the assigned job. You can relate this with MSRTC employees Strike. They want the same salary as other government officials.


3. Learning and self-efficacy:-

Social learning theory (Bandura) focuses on the new constant learning and improving productivity.

Every individual who joins the organization is given some job to perform. The nature of the job its contents and its design have a great impact on the working behavior and level of performance of the individual.


Every theory has it's own pro's and con's. To conclude all the theories into practically approached way into 2 main concepts of Job enlargement and job enrichment. These two concepts which mostly used in work culture to motivate.


Job Enlargement techniques

  1. Use a variety of skills for performing a variety of operations.

  2. Exercise control over how and when the work is to be completed.

  3. Be responsible for the entire piece of work, and

  4. Get feedback on the information.

Job Enrichment techniques

  1. Rotation of tasks, giving more responsibility and reducing supervision, and broadening qualifications and skills of the jobholders.

  2. Giving job holders more scope to change the method, sequence, and pace of their work.

  3. Allowing more say and influence of jobholders in setting standards of performance.

  4. Adding new and more difficult tasks not handled by the job holders earlier.

  5. Supplying the necessary information to the job holders which they need to monitor their performance.

  6. Assigning job holders or groups more specific projects which


Give them more responsibility and help them to increase their Expertise.

It's always better to do any job with awareness. This awareness will help to prepare prior to accepting those job letters. The feeling of being manipulated by others is hard to digest than the feeling of motivation, recognition by others.

Keep Reading keep Motivating!!


Digambar Mali

Active Analytical Thinker, Currently working on financial literacy.

Enthusiastic about Leadership and Psychology

Publicity Co-Ordinator Syncing.GCEK

Email | LinkedIn







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